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Alexandar The Great Quotes

 
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vulgaren



Joined: 06 Jul 2004
Posts: 140
Location: Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

PostPosted: Mon Dec 06, 2004 11:55 am    Post subject: Alexandar The Great Quotes Reply with quote

"In faith and hope the world will disagree, But all mankind's concern is charity. "
Alexander The Great
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Tino



Joined: 28 Oct 2003
Posts: 292
Location: Canada

PostPosted: Mon Dec 06, 2004 5:49 pm    Post subject: Alexander's reply Letter to Darius Reply with quote

Alexander's Reply to Darius when he asked him why he is attacking Persia:

'Your ancestors invaded Macedonia and the rest of Greece and did us harm although we had not done you any previous injury. I have been appointed commander-in-chief of the Greeks and it is with the aim of punishing the Persians that I have crossed into Asia, since you are the aggressors. You gave support to the people of Perinthus, who had done my father harm, and Ochus sent a force to Thrace, which was under our rule. My father died at the hand of conspirators instigated by you*, as you yourself boasted to everybody in your letters, you killed Arses with the help of Bagoas and gained your throne through unjust means, in defiance of Persian custom and doing wrong to the Persians. You sent unfriendly letters to the Greeks about me, to push them to war against me, and sent money to the Spartans and some other Greeks, which none of the other cities would accept apart from the Spartans*. Your envoys corrupted my friends and sought to destroy the peace which I established among the Greeks.

I therefore led an expedition against you, and you started the quarrel. But now I have defeated in battle first your generals and satraps, and now you in person and your army, and by the grace of the gods I control the country. All those who fought on your side and did not die in battle but came over to me, I hold myself responsible for them; they are not on my side under duress but are taking part in the expedition of their own free will. Approach me therefore as the lord of all Asia. If you are afraid of suffering harm at my hands by coming in person, send some of your friends to receive proper assurances. Come to me to ask and receive your mother, your wife, your children and anything else you wish. Whatever you can persuade me to give shall be yours.

In future whenever you communicate with me, send to me as king of Asia; do not write to me as an equal, but state your demands to the master of all your possessions. If not, I shall deal with you as a wrongdoer. If you wish to lay claim to the title of king, then stand your ground and fight for it; do not take to flight, as I shall pursue you wherever you may be.'

* There is no proof of this claim
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cindoo15



Joined: 29 Nov 2004
Posts: 1282
Location: Dallas TX

PostPosted: Tue Dec 07, 2004 9:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very powerful writing - it leaves me in awe.
Where did this quote come from? I have read that very little (possibly only part of one letter) actually remains that Alexander himself wrote.
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Tino



Joined: 28 Oct 2003
Posts: 292
Location: Canada

PostPosted: Tue Dec 07, 2004 9:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

"Anabasis of Alexander", not sure exactly which book, if you really need to know I will search further into the matter.
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demosthenes



Joined: 07 Dec 2004
Posts: 5

PostPosted: Wed Dec 08, 2004 2:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's very unlikely that anything in Anabasis was actually said by Alexander. The author, Arrian, was proconsul of Romn Cappadocia in the 2nd century AD. Obviously, he lived a good long while after Alexander.

Ancient historians were in the habit of putting words into peoples' mouths; Herodotus did it all the time (see the Funeral Speech Of Pericles) to express a sentiment that that person may have had. I doubt that anything Alexander actually said survives.
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vulgaren



Joined: 06 Jul 2004
Posts: 140
Location: Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

PostPosted: Wed Dec 08, 2004 2:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

13] Alexander address his troops: "Gentlemen of Macedon, and you my friends and allies, this must not be. Stand firm; for well you know that hardship and danger are the price of glory, and that sweet is the savour of a life of courage and of deathless renown beyond the grave." [p.294] Arrian Book5
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Tino



Joined: 28 Oct 2003
Posts: 292
Location: Canada

PostPosted: Wed Dec 08, 2004 5:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

demos:
indeed Arian lived much later, but he was quoted that he used the works of the original Calisthenes (Alexander's court historian) and the personal journals of Ptolemy himself (which were stored in the Great Library of Alexandria) so I don't think we have anyone more credible than Arian and Plutarch.
If you know of anyone who is more acurate, I would be more than interested in reading their work.
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cindoo15



Joined: 29 Nov 2004
Posts: 1282
Location: Dallas TX

PostPosted: Thu Dec 09, 2004 5:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tino - thank you so much for the information.

I am curious about timing here. Let me see if I am following this correctly. 1) Arian got his information directly from writings of Calisthenes and Ptolemy which were in the Great Library in Alexandria and 2) the Great Library was burned 1st century BC (this I may be incorrect - please correct me if I am) and 3) Arian lived in the 2nd century CE.

Now, how could Arian have read directly from Calisthenes and Ptolemy if these works were burned 300 years before Arian was born?

I am not trying to be confrontational and pardon me please if I seem so; I am just very curious how this works because I have read before that Arian got his sources directly and I cannot quite figure out how it fits.
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vulgaren



Joined: 06 Jul 2004
Posts: 140
Location: Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

PostPosted: Thu Dec 09, 2004 3:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c92-c175), known in English as Arrian, was a Roman historian. He was born in Nicomedia (now Kocaeli), the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia, in what is now north-western Turkey. Although he was a Roman citizen, he spoke and wrote in Greek. He is historically important because among his works is the best surviving account of Alexander the Great.

Arrian studied philosophy in Nicopolis, Epirus, under the Stoic philosopher Epictetus, and wrote two books about the philosopher's teachings. At the same time he entered the Imperial service, and served in Gaul and on the Danube frontier. In 129 he held the office of Consul. In 130 he was appointed governor of Cappadocia and commander of the Roman legions on the border with Armenia. It was unusual at this time for a Greek to hold such high military command. During this period Arrian wrote several works, in Latin, on military tactics.

On the death of his patron, the Emperor Hadrian, in 138, Arrian retired to Athens, where he became a citizen and a member of the Boule (Council). In 145 he held the post of Archon, once the city's leading political post but by this time an honorary one. It was here that he devoted himself to history, writing his most important work, the Anabasis Alexandri or The Campaigns of Alexander. He also wrote the Indica, an account of the voyage by Alexander's fleet from India to the Persian Gulf under Nearchus. He also wrote a political history of the Greek world after Alexander, most of which is lost. Arrian died in Athens in about 175.

Arrian is an important historian because his work on Alexander is the oldest surviving complete account of the Macedonian conqueror. Arrian was able to use sources which are now lost, such as the contemporary works by Callisthenes (the nephew of Alexander's tutor Aristotle), Onescritus, Nearchus and Aristobulus, and the slightly later work of Cleitarchus. Most important of all, Arrian had the biography of Alexander by Ptolemy, one of Alexander's leading generals and possibly his half-brother.

Arrian's work is to a considerable extent a reworking of Ptolemy, with material from other writers, particularly Aristobulus, brought in where Arrian thought them useful. Ptolemy was a general, and Arrian relied on him most for details of Alexander's battles, on which Ptolemy was certainly well informed. Details of geography and natural history were taken from Aristobulus, although Arrian himself had a wide knowledge of Anatolia and other eastern regions.

Today most interest focusses on Alexander as a man and as a political leader, and here Arrian's sources are less clear and his reliability more questionable. Probably it was not possible for Arrian to recover an accurate picture of Alexander's personality 400 years after his death, when most of his sources were partisan in one way or another. Aristobulus, for example, was known as kolax, the flatterer, while other sources were equally hostile.

Arrian was in any case primarily a military historian, and here he followed his great model and namesake, the terse and narrowly-focussed soldier-historian Xenophon. He has little to say about Alexander's personal life, his role in Greek politics or the reasons why the campaign against Persia was launched in the first place.

Neverthless, Arrian's work gives a reasonably full account of Alexander's life during the campaign, and in his personal assessment of Alexander he steers a judicious course between flattery and condemnation. He concedes Alexander's vanity, suspiciousness and fondness for drink, but acquits him of the grosser crimes some writers accused him of. But he does not discuss Alexander's wider political views or other aspects of his life that the modern reader would like to know more about.

Arrian in his daily life would have spoken the koine, or "common Greek" of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. But as a writer he felt obliged to follow the prevailing view that serious works must be composed in "good Greek," which meant imitating as closely as possible the grammar and literary style of the Athenian writers of the 5th century BC. In Arrian's case this meant following the Attic style of Xenophon and Thucydides. This is the equivalent of a modern historian trying to write in the English of Shakespeare. His account of India, the "Indica", was written in an equally wooden imitation of the language of Herodotus.

The result is a work which was inevitably stilted and artificial, although Arrian handled the strain of writing 500-year-old Greek better than some of his contemporaries. Fortunately Xenophon was a good model of clear and unpretentious prose, which Arrian was wise to follow. Modern historians may regret that so many of the earlier works on Alexander have been lost, but they are grateful to Arrian for preserving so much.
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Tino



Joined: 28 Oct 2003
Posts: 292
Location: Canada

PostPosted: Thu Dec 09, 2004 4:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Vulgaren, you saved me the trouble of posting that.

As far as I can tell, Arian and Plutarch are the 2 most acurate sources for Alexander the Great's campaigns, if someone knows of anything more acurate, I would be most grateful.
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cindoo15



Joined: 29 Nov 2004
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Location: Dallas TX

PostPosted: Fri Dec 10, 2004 8:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

When did the library in Alexandria burn?
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Leonnatus



Joined: 06 Feb 2005
Posts: 124

PostPosted: Sun Feb 13, 2005 11:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

" If I had not been Alexander, I would like to have been Diogenes".
For me,its no accident that Perdiccas is the source of this superb insight into the Great's mindset.Alexander effectively debunked the central tenet of Aristotle's assessment of the Persians which was I qoute "Persians are slaves by nature". Diogenes' philosophy was all about challenging this kind of hate and Alexander saw that he could learn much from an older civilization than Grecian. Perdiccas was Alexander's number 1 backer after the death of Hephaestion. He and a few others were the only ones to stand for Alexander's vision and purpose,after the Great's death,against those mediocrities who sought only to hold on to what they had got. Perdiccas paid with his life in defense of Alexander's vision and purpose and Diogenes was surely an inspiration to him also Cool
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joanna



Joined: 02 Feb 2005
Posts: 1270
Location: Greece/USA/Italy/UK/

PostPosted: Sun Mar 13, 2005 2:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I like this one :"There is nothing impossible to him who will try."
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