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Women in ancient Greece
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joanna



Joined: 02 Feb 2005
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 12:02 am    Post subject: Women in ancient Greece Reply with quote

It's been a long time since I wrote a post about the women in ancient Greece. I'd like to continue in the 'General discussion' so I made that topic here.
I'd like to talk about some distinguished women who lived that time.
If you want you can find more details in this site:

http://www.looking-in.net/womengreece.html

Anyway I'll try to summarize the article.

In ancient Greece (except the typical women ) there were some others who were educated and influenced literature, philosophy, politics and even mathematics! Some of them are : Sappho ,Theano , Aspasia.
Without the minds of these women , Greek history would not have been the same.

Sappho (c.630 BC ) was one of the most admired and controversial poets in literary history. Solon was influenced by her ( saying of one of her poems, " I want to learn it and die!"). Plato named her the 'tenth' muse.
She was also a lyrist and performed her poems with a lyre.She was the first to write a poem in the first person, describing her feeling and emotions , mainly focused on love and reflection.

Theano ( c. 580 BC) was an influence on many men, particularly her husband, Pythagoras. After his death she continued to run the school herself. That woman contributed to maths, cosmology , astronomy etc Diogenes Laertius (and others ) has cited her work in cosmology.One of her greatest works is the " Construction of the Universe ".
She had an influence in mathematics ,too. Just as maths was important to Pythagoras , it was equally important to Theano.
She was also a writer on women's ethics,abstinence and sexual activity.
Her daughters were also remarkable women.


Aspasia ( c. 460 BC ) . The'wife' of Pericles and the teacher of Socrates and Plato. What to say about this woman. She had a considerable influence on all three. They learnt the art of rhetoric and philosophy from Aspasia,'The first lady of Athens' though she never legally married Pericles.Most of her literature and rhetoric contributions were made through her teaching. By tutoring women ,she was helping break the lines which divided the sexes.


( to be continued )
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Alexandros_19



Joined: 15 Feb 2005
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 12:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Joanna,

It's great that you are posting this! I think that history has surely been constructed with a gender bias and it is very useful when someone tries to apply some revisionism and remark women for the important roles they performed throughout time but that we ignore.
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cindoo15



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PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 7:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Joanna, this is very interesting; I am glad to read it.

I think, unfortunately, I was the first one on the site to say derogatory things about women in ancient times. I certainly did not mean there were no exceptional women; as you proved, there most certainly were. It was just my point that to be the average woman at that time would have been difficult (at least looking back at it from 21st century eyes that is). Hope I didn't upset you with my previous post; it was not my intention I am sure you know.
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cindoo15



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PostPosted: Thu Apr 28, 2005 7:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thinking back on it; it was in response to a post about who you would want to be if you lived back then. I think we both agreed we'd want to be Alexander!! Then I wrote something about how I wouldn't have wanted to be a woman at that time because of what their average life was like. These women you mention; they are very interesting and certainly not average by any case. Thanks again for the information.
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joanna



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PostPosted: Wed May 04, 2005 9:24 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yea, I see what you mean, Pam. It's only that every time I hear about the status of women in ancient times I get a little... angry (not upset!).
It was so different back then. That was their way of living. I just believe comparing the women's role in ancient times to their status at the present time makes no sense.It doesn't mean much.
Now I have to go. I'll post more about these 'marvellous' ancient women soon. I promise!
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joanna



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PostPosted: Sat May 07, 2005 1:43 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here there are more remarkable women in ancient Greece:

4) Cynisca

'She was a Spartan princess who was born around 440 BC. She was the daughter of Spartan king Agesilaus II. She became the first woman in history to win at the ancient Olympic Games.While most women in the ancient Greek world were kept in seclusion and forbidden to learn any kind of skills in sports, Spartan women by contrast were brought from girlhood to excel at these things and to disdain household chores.
Cynisca won in the four-horse chariot race in 396 BC and again in 392.
In Olympia, Greece, she had an inscription written declaring that she was the only female to win the wreath in the chariot events.


5) Telesilla of Argos

She lived in Argos in the 5th century BC.She was renowned for her bravery as well as her poetry.When the Spartan Cleomenes defeated the Argive army , Telesilla is said to have armed the women. The story goes that when the Spartans saw their enemy, they retreated out of fear that should they lose , it would be humiliating to have been defeated by women. But some think that she roused the forces with her poetry. The Argives , in order to honor her, set up her statue depicting her as she puts her helmet while her books lie on the ground at her side ( Plutarch 'Moralia').

6) Agnodice

She lived in the 4th century BC. She was a physician ,gynecologist. She dressed as a man to study with the doctor Herophilus. She began to practice gynecologist, still disguised. Her fame became great, and fellow doctors accused her of corrupting women. She was forced to reveal herself as a woman in order to escape execution. Then she was charged with practicing medicing illegally since women were not permitted to practice medicine. The court in Athens acqitted Agnodice.'

to be continued
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Alexandros_19



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PostPosted: Sun May 08, 2005 12:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

All those you have posted are truly interesting stories. I enjoy reading them and briefly know what they achieved. What a great thing to encourage armies with poetry!
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joanna



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PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2005 6:42 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's high time I continued posting about those extraordinary Greek women who deserve to be remembered. " Better late than ever " !
Here they are :

7) THEMISTA ( ca 340 BC )
She was called "the female Solon". Epicurus,the great philosopher, kept a close correspondence with her and her husband Leontius.


Cool PERICTIONE ( ca 450 BC )
She is believed to be Plato's mother. But there was also a niece of his with the same name (philosophy runs in the family !)
She was influenced by Pythagoras. ( I think I should devote some space for him. He was an extraordinary man. )
"Wisdom" and "On the Harmony of women" are two of her most famous writings. She believed (and passed it down to her son ) that as medicine heals the body, so music and rhetoric heal the soul. And the art of speech is in essence the elevation and guide of the soul.

9) ARETE of Cyrene ( 4th century BC )
I think, it's interesting to point out that her name (it's pronounced /areti'/ )means 'virtue' in Greek and it's still used today as a woman's name.It's one of my favourite. I've always said that if I had a daughter I would call her wwith this name.
Arete is one of the few ancient women philosophers that actually had a philosophic career. She was the daughter of Aristippus, a student and friend of Socrates, who was also present at Socrates' death. Her father founded a school in Cyrene, which is now northheastern Libya and a Greek colony at that time. The school was one of the earliest proponents of hedonism. and after his death Arete succeeded him as the head of the school. She taught natural and moral philosophy for 30 years, wrote 40 books, and counted among her pupils 110 philosophers. She was held in such high regard that upon her death her countrymen inscribed on her tomb an epitaph that declared she was the splendor of Greece and possessed the beaty of Helen, the virtue of Thirma, the pen of Aristippus, the soul of Socrates, and the tongue of Homer.

10) LASTENIA (4th century BC) She was mentioned by Plato as a respected teacher of natural philosophy.

11) THEANO II ( a late Pythagorian philosopher;they existed roughly between 425BC-100AD)

Her writings are mostly in the forms of letters to fellow females. She was interested in writing how to bring up children and how children didn't know the proper portion for pleasure so that it was the mother's duty to guide them in this, and if the mother did not they were contributing to the disorder of society.

12) AESARA of Lucania. ( also a late Pythagorian philosopher )

She applied the normative principle of harmonia. Harmonia is the principle "of all the things that are, " including geometry, arithmetic, music, and the cosmos. With ethics grounded in praagmatism, Aesara wrote the book "On Human Nature" which presented an intuitive natural law theory. She argued that by analyzing the nature of the soul we will understand the nature of law and of justice at the individual, familial, and social levels. Aesara showed that harmony is the principle of law, justice and human psychology.

13) PHYNTIS of Sparta (?)

Not many sources about her but the book "On the Moderation of Women" is contributed to her.

14) HIPPARCHIA (born about 340BC)
The world's first liberated woman. The first Greek girl to choose her own bridegroom!
She was born in Trace, the daughter of Athenian aristocrats. She was a Cynic philosopher, the wife of Crates. This extraordinary young woman dared to defy the social norms of her time and to bravely assert equality of the sexes. Diogenes Laertius, famous for his biographies, couldn't omit to write one for her.
Hipparchia was a wife and a mother (not an hetaera) who took part in symposiums and other public meetings. Some authors report that Hipparchia and Crates consummated their marriage by having sex on a public porch. They believed -according to the cynic value of "anaideia" (i.e shamelessness) that any actions virtuous enough to be done in private are no less virtues when performed in public ! They influenced their pupil Zeno, the founder of Stoicism.

15) DIOTIMA of Mantinea (ca 400 BC)
Diotima, Socrates great teacher from the Symposium, a work by Plato was one of the most influential women thinkers of all time, whether she was a real person or a literary fictional character. She related to Socrates the theory of love which he described to the partygoers at Agathon's banquet, a celabration of Agathon's victory at the competition of Dionysis in Athens and of eros.
Diotima taught Socrates that love was the child of Poros and Penia, lack and plenty, a spirit of the between. Love was one of the daimon, the spirits that held the world together as a whole, the force that relayed messages and prayers between the gods and men. Eros was also known best through wisdom. The love of wisdom is the love of eros.
As we progress in our lives, Diotima told Socrates, we grow in our conception of love. First we are stirred by the beauty of the young body. Then we begin to see the beauty in all bodies. At this point we look to the beauty of the soul. As man is able to identify the beauty on all souls, he soon appreciates the beauty in the laws, and the structure of all things. Lastly we discover the beauty of the forms, the divine ideas. Love is important for it starts and continues us on our path.

16) CLEOBULINE of Rhodes ( 6th century BC ) Cleobuline was the daughter of Cleobulus, one of the seven wise men.
They say her real name was not Cleobuline but her father used to call her with this name (like his ) because he strongly believed in her abilities as a philosopher. Much of what we know of her comes from Aristotle's 'Poetics' and he quoted her in ' Rhetorics'. Fame came to her from her riddles, which she wrote in hexameter verse. From Plutarch we know that Thales praised her as being a woman with "a statesman's mind ", thus he nicknamed her Eumetis meaning Wise Counsel. Her father was believed to have ruled Rhoded more fairly due to her influence.

17) PYTHAGORAS (570-500 BC )

Yes, he was a man.....but...

Like I said before I'd like to write something about him. He was a man who loved and respected women all his life.
In his school women were also admitted to learn mathematics and philosophy ( two subjects closely related according to Pythagoreans).
He believed in Reason as the most important human characteristic, and said it was unaffected by gender. In his school he was known to show favoritism and speak specially to the women. He also said that sons and daughters should be given the same education, and there should be no
distinctions between male and female in their training. He prooved it with his own daughters who he brought up to become tachers in his school. Do you remember his wife Theano? He considered her completely as an equal.
Interestingly enough, Pythagoras himself studied under a woman teacher; she was the Delphic priestess THEMISTOCLEA
1Cool JOANNA of Athens ( ca 1963 AD)
One of the greatest philosophers of all times. Her famous saying is "the women's age is a mystery. And let it be one!
Above all a philosopher but also an aspiring painter ( her work resembles Apelles'...but hers is a little more superior than his..), sculptor ( according to Lysippus'school ), ceramic vases and pots artist ( see :the golden Age of Athens style), a successful teacher of different languages and dialects ( Greek-Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Archaean. Macedonian, Latin-Piedmontese...you name them ) and last but not least a historian specializing in ancient Greek and Roman history with preference for that gorgeous guy who's called "Megas Alexandros".
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joanna



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PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2005 6:59 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Back to make a correction . " Better late than Never ".

And I want also to say that the last philosopher in the list above seems to be the most interesting one. What do you think? Very Happy
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Alexandros_19



Joined: 15 Feb 2005
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2005 11:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

joanna wrote:

And I want also to say that the last philosopher in the list above seems to be the most interesting one. What do you think? Very Happy


Laughing Laughing Certainly!
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cindoo15



Joined: 29 Nov 2004
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2005 5:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

joanna wrote:
Back to make a correction . " Better late than Never ".

And I want also to say that the last philosopher in the list above seems to be the most interesting one. What do you think? Very Happy


Definitely my favorite!

Also, Joanna, thanks for the interesting replies about my vacation. One other little thing about the ice. Once I was in Germany and trying desperately to get some ice, the waiter brought me a bowl of ice cream! Laughing
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apelles



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PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2005 9:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Loved Joanna of Athens. Laughing
I,d like to add Gnathaenium and Phryne the most celebrated courtesans the world has ever seen.Men saw them and wept especially when they found out the prices! Laughing
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kookook



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PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2005 4:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote


Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii. Courtesy of Pompeii.



"Peace was re-established, and the Romans rewarded this act of courage - new in a woman - with a new kind of honor, an equestrian statue. At the top of the Via Sacra a statue of the girl on horseback was set up. "

Livy, History of Rome, on Cloelia. Quoted in Women's Life in Greece & Rome, Lefkowitz and Fant, 133.

A current academic phrase in women's studies is "construction of gender," defined as "society's creation of a set of expectations about the appropriate traits of character and forms of behavior for men and women." I Claudia II, 77. Such constructs or stereotypes are, in their own time, taken as inevitable but are actually variable depending upon cultural and historical influences. This is particularly true of the amalgam of Greece and Etruria that influenced Roman women.

A fertile mix of influences from both Greece and Etruscan forbears, and the legends of early Rome itself, helped create the dichotomy of the Roman upper-class woman of the late Republic and Empire; she was expected to ambitiously practice power politics and reflect the sophistication of an imperial society and, at the same time, reflect the early values of Roman women by spinning her own cloth and thriftily managing household and children. She was to be both emancipated and respectable in a world dominated by men but in which women had carved out spheres of moral influence all their own. Through her fertile moral values, the strength of Rome would be transmitted to future generations.

The Roman past was inhabited by idealistic myths of a simpler golden age. Both the men and women growing up in an increasingly powerful Rome imbibed concepts of heroism and duty based on the collective strengths of the Roman city-state. Roman woman were expected to embody and support that cultural greatness as much as her men. "Working in wool," found in so many admiring epitaphs, meant a woman who had stayed in touch with the deepest values of Roman tradition.

The Feminine Paradigm

Any reader of Livy, the Augustan historian who has best preserved the legend-fact mix of ancient Rome history, finds many women to either condemn or admire. Titus Livius (59BC - 17 AD) wrote during the Augustan age, when a half-century of civil war and a flood of imperial wealth had, in the opinion of his time, undermined the strong moral values of the early Republic. His purpose in writing down the early legends of Rome was to instruct as well as correct; they are brilliant propaganda for the moral reforms Augustus was optimistically proposing. In these fables - possibly, though not probably, with a basis in historical fact - women figure prominently in the reflected glories of Rome’s unsullied past. However political the use of these heroines in Livy’s histories, they do represent feminine values which were cherished in the early Republic and Empire, arguably by women as well as men. No writer of the classical world peopled his histories with more images of strong but compassionate Roman women than Livy.

Thus in the early stories of Rome, we meet Cloelia, Lucretia, Veturia and Verginia, women who took the male concept of “duty, honor, country” and made it their own, as well as women like Tarpeia who betrayed Rome’s values and the Sabine women, who personified it. The courage and self-sacrifice of its heroines were considered worthy of both admiration and reverence. Their tales are instructive in portraying feminine behavior admired or condemned in the early centuries of Rome’s development.

From the days of legendary Romulus himself, the famous story of the rape of the Sabine women provided a tender counterpart to the savagery of early Rome. Romulus and his warlike band needed one element to complete the founding of the great city; women to provide children. No neighboring tribe, however, would agree, as they viewed the brutal Romans as barbarians and criminals. Typically, the Romans decided to obtain wives by force and went to a neighboring tribe, the Sabines, with a crafty proposal of burying the hatchet by jointly celebrating religious observances with the Romans. Unarmed and unprepared, the Sabines (with their wives and daughters) attended the Consuelia festival in Rome, only to find their women taken by force. Three years later, the Sabine fathers and brothers returned for revenge and successfully breached the Palatine defenses; before the Romans were destroyed, their now-reconciled women (with children in tow) threw themselves between the parties, begging mercy for their husbands. War was averted and Rome - based not on blasphemy or rape, but on forgiveness - was well founded.

The Rape of Lucretia

Lucretia (traditionally, ca. 510 BC) was the virtuous young wife of Collatinus during the decadent last years of the Tarquin the Proud. A woman’s most special virtue was supposed to be her pudicitia, a mixture of chaste modesty, sexual fidelity, and fertility. While at war near the town of Ardea, not far from Rome, the young warriors boasted one night about what their wives were doing back in Rome, each claiming his wife would be faithful and virtuous in his absence. Collatinus claimed his wife, Lucretia, would surpass the rest. Racing disguised to Rome, the young men found their wives were partying with friends at a great banquet. Only Lucretia was found in her atrium with her maid servants, modestly working wool by lamplight and worrying about her beloved husband’s safety. The king’s son, Sextus Tarquinius, became obsessed with desire for the virtuous young wife. Returning some nights later in her husband’s absence, he forcibly raped her after threatening that, if she refused, he would simply kill her and place the body of a murdered slave next to her in bed, telling everyone that she had been killed when taken in adultery. After the rape, Lucretia sent urgent messages to her husband and father, who arrived with friends. After hearing the facts of the rape, the horrified men absolved Lucretia and promised that Tarquinius would pay for his crime. However, the woman’s grief was such that she did not absolve herself from paying the penalty for adultery, however forced; in the men’s presence, she stabbed herself to death, crying that, from now on, no woman could use the example of Lucretia to live unchaste. The public horror over her rape and suicide led to a revolution, toppling the Tarquin dynasty and establishing the Republic.

Cloelia

After the overthrow of the last Tarquin king, his ally Lars Porsenna, king of Clusium, attempted his restoration and warred on Rome (traditionally, 506 BC). During a truce, Porsenna took a group of young Roman men and maidens as hostages. Cloelia, one of the female hostages, escaped from the king’s custody and led several other female hostages to freedom by swimming the Tiber on her horse under a hail of enemy spears. When the Clusian king protested that the truce had been violated and threatened to renew hostilities, Cloelia dutifully agreed to return to him as a hostage to preserve the peace. Porsenna’s admiration for her courage was so extreme that he permitted her to choose further hostages and return safely to Rome. Cloelia, realizing how desperately Rome needed its warriors, chose a group of young men rather than her female companions. An equestrian statue of the heroine was set up in Republican days at the top of the Via Sacra, the first such honor ever accorded to a woman: she was to be honored alike for her courage in escaping, her duty in returning to the king when peace required it, and her pragmatic patriotism in choosing to liberate young Roman soldiers rather than her own friends.

Young woman spinning. Modern, Saalburg Museum

Women not only symbolized courage and chastity, as in the stories of these young maidens, but mercy and tenderness, the necessary counterpart to Rome’s surly bellicosity. Livy’s women also speak to us of the softer side of human nature; the stern but compassionate love of a mother for her children; of wives for their husbands. These more traditional virtues were elevated by Livy into the apotheosis of feminine virtues.

Veturia and Volumnia

In the war against the Volscians (traditionally 488 BC), the famous Roman general, Coriolanus, changed sides and led the troops of Rome’s enemies within striking distance of his former city. Pleas and appeals from Rome’s greatest men left him unmoved; so, the women of Rome went in a body to his loyal mother, Veturia, and Volumnia, his wife, and begged them to intercede for the desperate city. Taking Coriolanus’s sons with them, the women journeyed to the enemy camp, where Veturia reproached her son: "Before I admit your embrace suffer me to know whether it is to an enemy or a son that I have come, whether it is as your prisoner or as your mother that I am in your camp. Has a long life and an unhappy old age brought me to this, that I have to see you an exile and from that an enemy? Had you the heart to ravage this land, which has borne and nourished you? However hostile and menacing the spirit in which you came, did not your anger subside as you entered its borders? Did you not say to yourself when your eye rested on Rome, 'Within those walls are my home, my household gods, my mother, my wife, my children'? Must it then be that, had I remained childless, no attack would have been made on Rome; had I never had a son, I should have ended my days a free woman in a free country?” The weeping women persuaded Coriolanus to withdraw (some say this led to his later murder by his erstwhile allies). The tears of children and a mother’s moral authority had saved Rome. It is significant that, in both Livy’s and Plutarch’s recounting of the story, the wife had far more moral authority over her erring son than his own wife.

Virginia

During the historical struggles between the Patricians and the Plebians during the rule of the Decemvirs (451 BC), Verginia (or Virginia) was the educated young daughter of a well-respected army officer, Verginius, and the fiancée of a young and prominent plebian, Icilius. The patrician nobleman Appius Claudius was one of the ten ruling Decemvirs. As such, he served as a judge of civil disputes. Appius fell in love - or lust - with Verginia and, in the absence of her father and fiancé with the army, attempted to seduce her, but was repeatedly rebuffed. Appius then devised a brutal plot. While Verginia was passing through the Forum on her way to school, she was seized by a client of Claudius who took her before the magistrate claiming that Verginia was not, indeed, the daughter of her father, but his own slave, stolen in infancy and insinuated into Verginius’ household as his own child without the father’s knowledge. He demanded that, as a slave, the court must return Verginia to the client’s custody and ultimately into Appius’ power. Appius was only persuaded to delay giving judgment against Verginia by the timely arrival of Icilius and the distress of the indignant crowd. It was agreed to delay the hearing until Verginius could be summoned. The next morning, the father and daughter returned and testimony was heard; to the horror of the crowd, Appius gave judgment that Verginia was a slave and must be returned immediately to her former “owner.” Verginius then begged that he be permitted to question his daughter and her nurse in private to determine the true facts of her birth. Taking her some distance from the tribunal, Verginius grabbed a knife from a nearby butcher’s stand and stabbed his child to death, crying out that it was only by her death that he could secure her freedom. The abuse of power by Appius allegedly led to the overthrow of the corrupt Decemvirate.

Tarpeia

The tale of a traitorous woman was equally as well known to Livy’s world as the heroines he exalted. According to old Roman legend Tarpeia was the daughter of Spurius Tarpeius who was the defender of the Capitol in Rome in a war against the Sabines. She delivered the great citadel over to the enemy in exchange for gold and ornaments. Another tale suggests tells she was driven by love for Titus Tatius, the leader of the enemy, rather than mere greed. The Sabines, once she led them into the citadel on the Capitoline, promised to give her what was on their left hands (which she took to mean, their golden armbands and bracelets). Instead, the treachery complete, the contemptuous Sabines crushed her beneath their shields (also in their left hands). The great rock of the Capitoline became known as the 'rupes Tarpeia' (‘'rock of Tarpeia') and for centuries thereafter, traitors and other heinous criminals were thrown from its height to their deaths.

These fables of Roman women, all as well known to Romans as the story of George Washington and the cherry tree to older Americans, are instructive for the feminine virtues they exalt. In each story, part of Rome’s political history - the overthrow of the tyrant kings, the struggles for law and political freedom, the courage and self-sacrifice required in war - is told as moral history exemplified by a woman’s nobility or, in rarer cases, a woman’s treachery. The early stories of Rome admire no quality more than courage and the exaltation of the community over the desires of the individual. Here women can be seen to be capable of supreme bravery and self-sacrifice for the good of the state, perhaps equal to men. But in all cases, women are expected to accept the authority and protection of their husbands and fathers, to look to them for protection, and to value a male warrior over a “mere woman.” Arguably, Roman women could share in the patriotic self-sacrifice of their menfolk, but were never placed in a position to compete with them as primary instruments of political strength.

With examples such as these, the women of early Rome were expected to place duty to their families and city above personal inclination. But another essential element of a woman’s place in Roman life was the anomalous authority of her father - the pater familias - within the family itself and her subjection to it as shown in the Republican period.

Sources:

Livy, History of Rome, I.9, I.13 [Rape of the Sabine Women];.I.57 [Lucretia]; III.48 [Verginia]; I.11 [Tarpeia]; II.13 [Cloelia]. Images: Rape of the Sabine Women[detail], David, Louvre Museum. The best source for Livy's own tales (Books 1-X) may be found at The Perseus Project. Link for Livy's biography courtesy of Thinkquest's Forum Romanum. Photograph of unknown Roman woman from the Vatican Museum (taken by the author).

An interesting discussion of just how far the notorious Etruscan women mentioned in Livy were more liberated than their Roman sisters may be found online at Livy and Etruscan Women (Ancient History Bulletin).
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joanna



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PostPosted: Mon Feb 27, 2006 5:09 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

" The return of the Titans... Confused the women " (I wanted to write)

Do you think I have forgotten about our extraordinary ancient greek women ? Not at all Exclamation They deserve to be remembered because they made a name for themselves in such a 'chauvinist' world.

So,here I am again posting about women who wrote literary stuff, poems ...etc. As well as artists, painters...etc.

But

before I write about them, I'd like to spend some time talking about women in Greek Mythology. There are more women representations there than men.

to be continued
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Leonida



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PostPosted: Mon Feb 27, 2006 11:30 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Kratesipolis (circa 314 BCE) Ruler of Corinth and Sikyon, Kratesipolis took the throne after the death of her husband. General and stateswoman, Kratesipolis kept Corinth out of Macedonian hands, before eventually handing over rule of the City to Ptolemy in 308.
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